Chikungunya in South America
Chikungunya cases had been initially noted in French Guiana at the end of 2013. The condition has spread throughout the South Americas including
Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Peru , Venezuela
The CDC has recommended that all visitors to South America take extra precautions in terms of bite prevention.
High risk groups for Chikungunya include
- Travelers over age 65
- Those who have pre-existing arthritis
- Serious chronic disease e.g. Ischaemic heart disease/Diabetes Mellitus
- Long term visitors and those staying mainly in rural areas
- Virus transmitted via mosquitos
- No travel vaccination available to prevent
- Spread via same mosquito as Dengue-Aedes specie
- Most usual symptoms –joint aches particularly hands/feet
- Other general symptoms include headache, myalgia and rashes
- Majority recover within 7 days
- Can cause long term joint pain
- Death from the condition is very rare
As of 9 December 2013, more than 4000 cases of dengue fever have been recorded since September 2013, nationally in Pakistan.
As of 13 December 2013, Sindh province has recorded 5430 cases with 33 deaths. Karachi is the municipality worst affected with more than 4700 cases. Punjab province has recorded 2589 cases and 26 deaths from dengue fever.
As of November 2013, 67 365 dengue fever cases and 152 related deaths have been recorded nationally in India. Maharashtra state has recorded 4026 cases and the worst affected municipality is Mumbai with 863 dengue cases and 11 deaths.
In Cuba, between epidemiological week (EW) 27 of 2012 and EW 34 of 2013, there have been 678 confirmed cholera cases, including 3 deaths. No new cases have been reported since 24 Aug 2013.
Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in the Dominican Republic (November 2010) until epidemiological week (EW) 46 of 2013, there have been a total of 31 220 suspected cholera cases, of which 462 died. Between EW 45 and EW 46 of 2013, 14 additional suspected cholera cases were reported and no deaths. During this period, 12 of 32 provinces have registered suspected cholera cases.
During the past 4 weeks, the provinces that accounted for 88% of suspected cases have been Azua, Distrito Nacional, San Cristobal, Santiago, Santo Domingo and La Vega.
Since EW 43 of 2013, an increase in the number of the suspected cases has been recorded, coinciding with rainy season of Hispaniola.
Chikungunya virus infections have continued to be reported in Singapore since the first cases were identified in April 2013. As of 4 December 2013, 924 cases have been recorded, of those, 881 infections were acquired locally. During the week beginning 25 November, 36 new infections were reported.
The majority of case have been reported from the Sungei Kadut and Bukit Timah/Holland areas, although four of last weeks cases were in the Defu Lane and Defu Avenue areas. These areas are in close proximity to lush vegetation where there is an abundance of natural mosquito habitats.
As of 3 December 2013, the Federal District of Brazil has recorded 11 618 cases of dengue fever. Cases continue to be reported from other states of the country:Litoral area of Sao Paulo state, 36 153 cases and 7 deaths. Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state, 96 397 confirmed cases. Para state, 16 868 cases; municipalities most affected include: (cases reported/cases confirmed): Santarem 2708/863 cases, Belem 1473/392 cases, Parauapebas 945/558 cases, (susp. only) Maraba 547 cases, Ananindeua 489 cases, (conf. only) Oriximina 382 cases, Ruropolis 292 cases. Mato Grosso state, 44 600 cases, municipalities most affected: Cuiaba 3593 cases, Rondonopolis 3217 cases, Sinop 8429 cases, Varzea Grande 787 cases.
The ‘high season’ for polio transmission is seeing a dramatic expansion of polio in Pakistan. Six new poliomyelitis cases were reported in the past week. Five of the cases were reported from FATA and one from Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). The total number of cases for Pakistan in 2013 is now 70.
Over the past four months, 45 cases of wild poliovirus have been reported since August, with evidence of widespread geographic transmission across the country. By contrast, 25 cases had been reported for the period January to July.
The situation in Pakistan is increasingly worrying to the global eradication effort, especially in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) which remains the main transmission zone in Pakistan.
(courtesy of Travax-www.travax.nhs.uk)